Minggu, 26 Mei 2013

Android Version logs,changes and info Android Alpha

Android Version logs,changes and info

Android alpha

There were at least two internal releases inside Google and the OHA before the Android beta was released in November 2007. In a temporary naming scheme, the second of these releases was code-named "R2-D2". Dan Morrill created some of the first mascot logos, but the current green Android logo was designed by Irina Blok. Ryan Gibson conceived of the confections naming scheme that has been used for the majority of the public releases, starting with Android 1.5 Cupcake in April 2009.
Android beta
The Android beta was released on 5 November 2007, while the software development kit (SDK) was released on 12 November 2007. The 5 November date is popularly celebrated as Android's "birthday". Public beta versions of the SDK were released in the following order:
16 November 2007: m3-rc22a
14 December 2007: m3-rc37a
13 February 2008: m5-rc14
3 March 2008: m5-rc15
18 August 2008: 0.9
23 September 2008: 1.0-r1
Version history by API level

Android 1.0 (API level 1)

Android 1.0, the first commercial version of the software, was released on 23 September 2008. The first Android device, the HTC Dream, incorporated the following Android 1.0 features:
[hide]Android 1.0
Version Release date Features Image(s)
1.0 23 September 2008
Android Market application download and updates through the Market app
Web browser to show, zoom and pan full HTML and XHTML web pages – multiple pages show as windows ("cards")
Camera support – however, this version lacked the option to change the camera's resolution, white balance, quality, etc.
Folders allowing the grouping of a number of app icons into a single folder icon on the Home screen
Access to web email servers, supporting POP3, IMAP4, and SMTP
Gmail synchronization with the Gmail app
Google Contacts synchronization with the People app
Google Calendar synchronization with the Calendar app
Google Maps with Latitude and Street View to view maps and satellite imagery, as well as find local business and obtain driving directions using GPS
Google Sync, allowing management of over-the-air synchronization of Gmail, People, and Calendar
Google Search, allowing users to search the Internet and phone apps, contacts, calendar, etc.
Google Talk instant messaging
Instant messaging, text messaging, and MMS
Media Player, enabling management, importing, and playback of media files – however, this version lacked video and stereo Bluetooth support
Notifications appear in the Status bar, with options to set ringtone, LED or vibration alerts
Voice Dialer allows dialing and placing of phone calls without typing a name or number
Wallpaper allows the user to set the background image or photo behind the Home screen icons and widgets
YouTube video player
Other apps include: Alarm Clock, Calculator, Dialer (Phone), Home screen (Launcher), Pictures (Gallery), and Settings
Wi-Fi and Bluetooth support

Android 1.0 on the HTC Dream

Android 1.1 (API level 2)

On 9 February 2009, the Android 1.1 update was released, initially for the HTC Dream only. Android 1.1 was known as "Petit Four" internally, though this name was not used officially. The update resolved bugs, changed the Android API and added a number of features:
[hide]Android 1.1
Version Release date Features Image(s)
1.1 9 February 2009
Details and reviews available when a user searches for businesses on Maps
Longer in-call screen timeout default when using the speakerphone, plus ability to show/hide dialpad
Ability to save attachments in messages
Support added for marquee in system layouts
Android 1.5 Cupcake (API level 3)
On 30 April 2009, the Android 1.5 update was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.27. This was the first release to officially use a codename based on a dessert item ("Cupcake"), a theme which would be used for all releases henceforth. The update included several new features and UI amendments:
[hide]Android 1.5 Cupcake
Version Release date Features Image(s)
1.5 30 April 2009
Support for third-party virtual keyboards with text prediction and user dictionary for custom words
Support for Widgets – miniature application views that can be embedded in other applications (such as the Home screen) and receive periodic updates
Video recording and playback in MPEG-4 and 3GP formats
Auto-pairing and stereo support for Bluetooth (A2DP and AVRCP profiles)
Copy and paste features in web browser
User pictures shown for Favorites in Contacts
Specific date/time stamp shown for events in call log, and one-touch access to a contact card from call log event
Animated screen transitions
Auto-rotation option
New stock boot animation
Ability to upload videos to YouTube
Ability to upload photos to Picasa

Android 1.5 on the HTC Magic

Android 1.6 Donut (API level 4)

On 15 September 2009, the Android 1.6 SDK – dubbed Donut – was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.29. Included in the update were numerous new features:
[hide]Android 1.6 Donut

Version Release date Features Image(s)
1.6 15 September 2009
Voice and text entry search enhanced to include bookmark history, contacts, and the web
Ability for developers to include their content in search results
Multi-lingual speech synthesis engine to allow any Android application to "speak" a string of text
Easier searching and ability to view app screenshots in Android Market
Gallery, camera and camcorder more fully integrated, with faster camera access
Ability for users to select multiple photos for deletion
Updated technology support for CDMA/EVDO, 802.1x, VPNs, and a text-to-speech engine
Support for WVGA screen resolutions
Speed improvements in searching and camera applications
Expanded Gesture framework and new GestureBuilder development tool

Android 2.0 Eclair (API level 5)

On 26 October 2009, the Android 2.0 SDK – codenamed Eclair – was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.29. Changes included:
[hide]Android 2.0 Eclair
Version Release date Features Image(s)
2.0 26 October 2009
Expanded Account sync, allowing users to add multiple accounts to a device for synchronization of email and contacts
Microsoft Exchange email support, with combined inbox to browse email from multiple accounts in one page
Bluetooth 2.1 support
Ability to tap a Contacts photo and select to call, SMS, or email the person
Ability to search all saved SMS and MMS messages, with delete oldest messages in a conversation automatically deleted when a defined limit is reached
Numerous new camera features, including flash support, digital zoom, scene mode, white balance, color effect and macro focus
Improved typing speed on virtual keyboard, with smarter dictionary that learns from word usage and includes contact names as suggestions
Refreshed browser UI with bookmark thumbnails, double-tap zoom and support for HTML5
Calendar agenda view enhanced, showing attending status for each invitee, and ability to invite new guests to events
Optimized hardware speed and revamped UI
Support for more screen sizes and resolutions, with better contrast ratio
Improved Google Maps 3.1.2
MotionEvent class enhanced to track multi-touch events
Addition of live wallpapers, allowing the animation of home-screen background images to show movement

Android 2.0 Eclair on the Motorola Droid
Android 2.0.1 Eclair (API level 6)

[hide]Android 2.0.1 Eclair
Version Release date Features Image(s)
2.0.1 3 December 2009
Minor API changes, bug fixes and framework behavioral changes
Android 2.1 Eclair (API level 7)
[hide]Android 2.1 Eclair
Version Release date Features Image(s)
2.1 12 January 2010
Minor amendments to the API and bug fixes
Android 2.2–2.2.3 Froyo (API level 8)
On 20 May 2010, the SDK for Android 2.2 (Froyo, short for frozen yogurt) was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.32.
[hide]Android 2.2 Froyo
Version Release date Features Image(s)
2.2 20 May 2010
Speed, memory, and performance optimizations
Additional application speed improvements, implemented through JIT compilation
Integration of Chrome's V8 JavaScript engine into the Browser application
Support for the Android Cloud to Device Messaging (C2DM) service, enabling push notifications
Improved Microsoft Exchange support, including security policies, auto-discovery, GAL look-up, calendar synchronization and remote wipe
Improved application launcher with shortcuts to Phone and Browser applications
USB tethering and Wi-Fi hotspot functionality
Option to disable data access over mobile network
Updated Market application with batch and automatic update features
Quick switching between multiple keyboard languages and their dictionaries
Voice dialing and contact sharing over Bluetooth
Support for Bluetooth-enabled car and desk docks
Support for numeric and alphanumeric passwords
Support for file upload fields in the Browser application
Support for installing applications to the expandable memory
Adobe Flash support
Support for high-PPI displays (up to 320 ppi), such as 4" 720p screens
Gallery allows users to view picture stacks using a zoom gesture

Android 2.2 Froyo on the Nexus One
2.2.1 18 January 2011
Bug fixes, security updates and performance improvements
2.2.2 22 January 2011
Minor bug fixes, including SMS routing issues that affected the Nexus One
2.2.3 21 November 2011
Two security patches

Android 2.3–2.3.2 Gingerbread (API level 9)

On 6 December 2010, the Android 2.3 (Gingerbread) SDK was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.35.[45][46] Changes included:[45]
[hide]Android 2.3 Gingerbread
Version Release date Features Image(s)
2.3 6 December 2010
Updated user interface design with increased simplicity and speed
Support for extra-large screen sizes and resolutions (WXGA and higher)
Native support for SIP VoIP internet telephony
Faster, more intuitive text input in virtual keyboard, with improved accuracy, better suggested text and voice input mode
Enhanced copy/paste functionality, allowing users to select a word by press-hold, copy, and paste
Support for Near Field Communication (NFC), allowing the user to read an NFC tag embedded in a poster, sticker, or advertisement
New audio effects such as reverb, equalization, headphone virtualization, and bass boost
New Download Manager, giving users easy access to any file downloaded from the browser, email, or another application
Support for multiple cameras on the device, including a front-facing camera, if available
Support for WebM/VP8 video playback, and AAC audio encoding
Improved power management with a more active role in managing apps that are keeping the device awake for too long
Enhanced support for native code development
Switched from YAFFS to ext4 on newer devices
Audio, graphical, and input enhancements for game developers
Concurrent garbage collection for increased performance
Native support for more sensors (such as gyroscopes and barometers)

Android 2.3 on Google's Nexus S
2.3.1 December 2010
Improvements and bug fixes for the Google Nexus S
2.3.2 January 2011

Android 2.3.3–2.3.7 Gingerbread (API level 10)

[hide]Android 2.3.3 Gingerbread
Version Release date Features Image(s)
2.3.3 9 February 2011
Several improvements and API fixes
2.3.4 28 April 2011
Support for voice or video chat using Google Talk
Open Accessory Library support. Open Accessory was introduced in 3.1 (Honeycomb) but the Open Accessory Library grants 2.3.4 added support when connecting to a USB peripheral with compatible software and a compatible application on the device
2.3.5 25 July 2011
Improved network performance for the Nexus S 4G, among other fixes and improvements
Fixed Bluetooth bug on Samsung Galaxy S
Improved Gmail application
Shadow animations for list scrolling
Camera software enhancements
Improved battery efficiency
2.3.6 2 September 2011
Fixed a voice search bug
(The 2.3.6 update had the side-effect of impairing the Wi-Fi hotspot functionality of many Canadian Nexus S phones. Google acknowledged this problem and fixed it in late September.)
2.3.7 21 September 2011
Google Wallet support for the Nexus S 4G
Android 3.0 Honeycomb (API level 11)
On 22 February 2011, the Android 3.0 (Honeycomb) SDK – the first tablet-only Android update – was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.36. The first device featuring this version, the Motorola Xoom tablet, was released on 24 February 2011. The update's features included:
[hide]Android 3.0 Honeycomb
Version Release date Features Image(s)
3.0 22 February 2011
Optimized tablet support with a new virtual and “holographic” user interface
Added System Bar, featuring quick access to notifications, status, and soft navigation buttons, available at the bottom of the screen
Added Action Bar, giving access to contextual options, navigation, widgets, or other types of content at the top of the screen
Simplified multitasking – tapping Recent Apps in the System Bar allows users to see snapshots of the tasks underway and quickly jump from one app to another
Redesigned keyboard, making typing fast, efficient and accurate on larger screen sizes
Simplified, more intuitive copy/paste interface
Multiple browser tabs replacing browser windows, plus form auto-fill and a new “incognito” mode allowing anonymous browsing
Quick access to camera exposure, focus, flash, zoom, front-facing camera, time-lapse, and other camera features
Ability to view albums and other collections in full-screen mode in Gallery, with easy access to thumbnails for other photos
New two-pane Contacts UI and Fast Scroll to let users easily organize and locate contacts
New two-pane Email UI to make viewing and organizing messages more efficient, allowing users to select one or more messages
Support for video chat using Google Talk
Hardware acceleration
Support for multi-core processors
Ability to encrypt all user data
HTTPS stack improved with Server Name Indication (SNI)
Filesystem in Userspace (FUSE; kernel module)

Android 3.0 on the Motorola Xoom tablet

Android 3.1 Honeycomb (API level 12)

[hide]Android 3.1 Honeycomb
Version Release date Features Image(s)
3.1 10 May 2011
UI refinements
Connectivity for USB accessories
Expanded Recent Apps list
Resizable Home screen widgets
Support for external keyboards and pointing devices
Support for joysticks and gamepads
Support for FLAC audio playback
High-performance Wi-Fi lock, maintaining high-performance Wi-Fi connections when device screen is off
Support for HTTP proxy for each connected Wi-Fi access point
Android 3.2 Honeycomb (API level 13)

Most first- and second-generation Google TV-enabled devices utilize Honeycomb 3.2.
[hide]Android 3.2 Honeycomb
Version Release date Features Image(s)
3.2 15 July 2011
Improved hardware support, including optimizations for a wider range of tablets
Increased ability of apps to access files on the SD card, e.g. for synchronization
Compatibility display mode for apps that have not been optimized for tablet screen resolutions
New display support functions, giving developers more control over display appearance on different Android devices
3.2.1 20 September 2011
Bug fixes and minor security, stability and Wi-Fi improvements
Update to Android Market with automatic updates and easier-to-read Terms and Conditions text
Update to Google Books
Improved Adobe Flash support in browser
Improved Chinese handwriting prediction
3.2.2 30 August 2011
Bug fixes and other minor improvements for the Motorola Xoom 4G
Bug fixes and other minor improvements for the Motorola Xoom and Motorola Xoom 4G
3.2.4 December 2011
"Pay as You Go" support for 3G and 4G tablets
3.2.5 January 2012
Bug fixes and other minor improvements for the Motorola Xoom and Motorola Xoom 4G
3.2.6 February 2012
Fixed data connectivity issues when coming out of airplane mode on the US 4G Motorola Xoom

Android 4.0–4.0.2 Ice Cream Sandwich (API level 14)

The SDK for Android 4.0.1 (Ice Cream Sandwich), based on Linux kernel 3.0.1, was publicly released on 19 October 2011. Google's Gabe Cohen stated that Android 4.0 was "theoretically compatible" with any Android 2.3.x device in production at that time. The source code for Android 4.0 became available on 14 November 2011. The update introduced numerous new features, including:
[hide]Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich
Version Release date Features Image(s)
4.0 19 October 2011
Soft buttons from Android 3.x are now available for use on phones
Separation of widgets in a new tab, listed in a similar manner to apps
Easier-to-create folders, with a drag-and-drop style
A customizable launcher
Improved visual voicemail with the ability to speed up or slow down voicemail messages
Pinch-to-zoom functionality in the calendar
Integrated screenshot capture (accomplished by holding down the Power and Volume-Down buttons)
Improved error correction on the keyboard
Ability to access apps directly from lock screen
Improved copy and paste functionality
Better voice integration and continuous, real-time speech to text dictation
Face Unlock, a feature that allows users to unlock handsets using facial recognition software
New tabbed web browser under Google's Chrome brand, allowing up to 16 tabs
Automatic syncing of browser with users' Chrome bookmarks
A new typeface family for the UI, Roboto
Data Usage section in settings that lets users set warnings when they approach a certain usage limit, and disable data use when the limit is exceeded
Ability to shut down apps that are using data in the background
Improved camera app with zero shutter lag, time lapse settings, panorama mode, and the ability to zoom while recording
Built-in photo editor
New gallery layout, organized by location and person
Refreshed "People" app with social network integration, status updates and hi-res images
Android Beam, a near-field communication feature allowing the rapid short-range exchange of web bookmarks, contact info, directions, YouTube videos and other data
Support for the WebP image format
Hardware acceleration of the UI
Wi-Fi Direct
1080p video recording for stock Android devices
Android VPN Framework (AVF), and TUN (but not TAP) kernel module. Prior to 4.0, VPN software required rooted Android.

Android 4.0 on the Samsung Galaxy Nexus
4.0.1 21 October 2011
Fixed minor bugs for the Samsung Galaxy Nexus.
4.0.2 28 November 2011
Fixed minor bugs on the Verizon Galaxy Nexus, the US launch of which was later delayed until December 2011
(For Canadian consumers, 4.0.2 reportedly created a bug on the Galaxy Nexus that crashed the application market when users attempted to view details of any Android application. It also inadvertently reduced the NFC capabilities of the Nexus phone).

Android 4.0.3–4.0.4 Ice Cream Sandwich (API level 15)

Android 4.0.3 Ice Cream Sandwich
Version Release date Features Image
4.0.3 16 December 2011
Numerous bug fixes and optimizations
Improvements to graphics, databases, spell-checking and Bluetooth functionality
New APIs for developers, including a social stream API in the Contacts provider
Calendar provider enhancements
New camera apps enhancing video stabilization and QVGA resolution
Accessibility refinements such as improved content access for screen readers
4.0.4 29 March 2012
Stability improvements
Better camera performance
Smoother screen rotation
Improved phone number recognition
Support for Adobe Systems' Flash player ended with Ice Cream Sandwich.
Android 4.1 Jelly Bean (API level 16)

Google announced Android 4.1 (Jelly Bean) at the Google I/O conference on 27 June 2012. Based on Linux kernel 3.0.31, Jelly Bean was an incremental update with the primary aim of improving the functionality and performance of the user interface. The performance improvement involved "Project Butter", which uses touch anticipation, triple buffering, extended vsync timing and a fixed frame rate of 60 fps to create a fluid and "buttery-smooth" UI. Android 4.1 Jelly Bean was released to the Android Open Source Project on 9 July 2012, and the Nexus 7 tablet, the first device to run Jelly Bean, was released on 13 July 2012.
Android 4.1 Jelly Bean
Version Release date Features Image
4.1 9 July 2012
Smoother user interface:
Vsync timing across all drawing and animation done by the Android framework, including application rendering, touch events, screen composition and display refresh
Triple buffering in the graphics pipeline
Enhanced accessibility
Bi-directional text and other language support
User-installable keyboard maps
Expandable notifications
Ability to turn off notifications on an app specific basis
Shortcuts and widgets can automatically be re-arranged or re-sized to allow new items to fit on home screens
Bluetooth data transfer for Android Beam
Offline voice dictation
Tablets with smaller screens now use an expanded version of the interface layout and home screen used by phones.
Improved voice search
Improved camera app
Google Wallet (for the Nexus 7)
High-resolution Google+ contact photos
Google Now search application
Multichannel audio
USB audio (for external sound DACs)
Audio chaining (also known as gapless playback)
Stock Android browser is replaced with the Android mobile version of Google Chrome in devices with Android 4.1 preinstalled
Ability for other launchers to add widgets from the app drawer without requiring root access

Android 4.1 on the Asus Nexus 7 tablet
4.1.1 23 July 2012
Fixed a bug on the Nexus 7 regarding the inability to change screen orientation in any application
4.1.2 9 October 2012
Lock/home screen rotation support for the Nexus 7
One-finger gestures to expand/collapse notifications
Bug fixes and performance enhancements
Android 4.2 Jelly Bean (API level 17)

Google was expected to announce Jelly Bean 4.2 at an event in New York City on 29 October 2012, but the event was cancelled due to Hurricane Sandy.[93] Instead of rescheduling the live event, Google announced the new version with a press release, under the slogan "A new flavor of Jelly Bean". The first devices to run Android 4.2 were LG's Nexus 4 and Samsung's Nexus 10, which were released on 13 November 2012.
Android 4.2 Jelly Bean
Version Release date Features Image
4.2 13 November 2012
"Photo Sphere" panorama photos
Keyboard with gesture typing
Lock screen improvements, including widget support and the ability to swipe directly to camera
Notification power controls ("Quick Settings")
"Daydream" screensavers, showing information when idle or docked
Multiple user accounts (tablets only)
Support for wireless display (Miracast)
Accessibility improvements: triple-tap to magnify the entire screen, pan and zoom with two fingers. Speech output and Gesture Mode navigation for blind users
New clock app with built-in world clock, stop watch and timer
All devices now use the same interface layout, previously adapted from phones on 4.1 for smaller tablets (with centered software buttons, the system bar at the top of the screen, and a home screen with a dock and centered application menu), regardless of screen size
Increased number of extended notifications and Actionable Notifications for more apps, allowing users to respond to certain notifications within the notification bar and without launching the app directly
Always-on VPN
Premium SMS confirmation
Group Messaging

Android 4.2 on the Google Nexus 4
4.2.1 27 November 2012
Fixed a bug in the People app where December was not displayed on the date selector when adding an event to a contact
Added Bluetooth gamepads and joysticks as supported HID
4.2.2 11 February 2013
Fixed Bluetooth audio streaming bugs
Long-pressing the Wi-Fi and Bluetooth icons in Quick Settings now toggles the on/off state
New download notifications, which now shows the percentage and estimated time remaining for active app downloads
New sounds for wireless charging and low battery
New Gallery app animation allows faster loading
USB debug whitelist
Bug fixes and performance enhancements
Android 5.0

Android 5.0 the successor to Android 4.x, Jelly Bean is widely rumored to be code named Key Lime Pie, although no official statements have been made confirming this. In February 2013, a leaked document from semiconductor manufacturer Qualcomm revealed that Key Lime Pie will be released in the second quarter of 2013.

Android rooting
Android rooting is the process of allowing users of smartphones, tablets, and other devices running the Android mobile operating system to attain privileged control (known as "root access") within Android's subsystem.
Rooting is often performed with the goal of overcoming limitations that carriers and hardware manufacturers put on some devices, resulting in the ability to alter or replace system applications and settings, run specialized apps that require administrator-level permissions, or perform other operations that are otherwise inaccessible to a normal Android user. On Android, rooting can also facilitate the complete removal and replacement of the device's operating system, usually with a more recent release of its current operating system.
As Android was derived from the Linux kernel, rooting an Android device is similar in practice to accessing administrative permissions on Linux or any other Unix-like operating system such as FreeBSD or OS X.

The process of rooting varies widely by device, but usually includes exploiting a security weakness in the firmware of the device, and then copying the su binary to a location in the current process's PATH (e.g. /system/xbin/su) and granting it executable permissions with the chmod command. A supervisor application like SuperUser or SuperSU can regulate and log elevated permission requests from other applications. Many guides, tutorials, and automatic processes exist for popular Android devices facilitating a fast and easy rooting process.
For example, shortly after the HTC Dream was released, it was quickly discovered that anything typed using the keyboard was being interpreted as a command in a privileged (root) shell. Although Google quickly released a patch to fix this, a signed image of the old firmware leaked, which gave users the ability to downgrade and use the original exploit to gain root access. Once an exploit is discovered, a custom recovery image that skips the digital signature check of a firmware update package can be flashed. In turn, using the custom recovery, a modified firmware update can be installed that typically includes the utilities (for example the Superuser app) needed to run apps as root.
The Google-branded Android phones, the Nexus One, Nexus S, Galaxy Nexus and Nexus 4, as well as their tablet counter parts, the Nexus 7 and Nexus 10, can be boot-loader unlocked by simply connecting the device to a computer while in boot-loader mode and running the Fastboot program with the command "fastboot oem unlock". After accepting a warning the boot-loader will be unlocked so that a new system image can be written directly to flash without the need for an exploit.
Recently, Motorola, LG Electronics and HTC have added security features to their devices at the hardware level in an attempt to prevent retail Android devices from being rooted.[citation needed] For instance, the Motorola Droid X has a security boot-loader that will put the phone in "recovery mode" if unsigned firmware is loaded onto the device, and the Samsung Galaxy S II will display a yellow triangle indicator if the device firmware has been modified.


Rooting of any device is legal if the purpose is to run legal apps
The Free Software Foundation Europe argues that it is legal to root or flash any device. According to the European Directive 1999/44/CE, replacing the original operating system with another does not void the statutory warranty that covers the hardware of the device for two years unless the seller can prove that the modification caused the defect.
United States
On July 26, 2010, the United States Copyright Office announced a new exemption making it officially legal to root a device and run unauthorized third-party applications, as well as the ability to unlock any cell phone for use on multiple carriers.
On October 28, 2012, the US Copyright Office updated their exemption policies. The rooting of smartphones continues to be legal "where circumvention is accomplished for the sole purpose of enabling interoperability of [lawfully obtained software] applications with computer programs on the telephone handset." However, the U.S. Copyright office refused to extend this exemption to tablets, arguing that the term "tablets" is broad and ill-defined, and an exemption to this class of devices could have unintended side effect.

 Source : XDA

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